A brake caliper is a brake part which houses the brake pads as well as a hydraulically or pneumatically operated piston.
When you are pressing the brake pedal, hydraulic or pneumatic pressure allows the piston in the brake caliper to be pushed out. The pressure is created with the braking liquid flowing through the brake hose. The pressure pushes the piston onto the brake pads which in turn are pressed onto the brake discs. This results in friction between the brake pads and discs causing the vehicle to stop. In general a caliper house only one piston, however heavier vehicles with larger brake discs can also have calipers with room for two pistons.
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